There’s no denying how vital it is for all athletes to get the correct physiotherapy treatment as quickly as possible after an injury has been sustained. What a ‘physio’ does in the immediate aftermath when the damage has been done can be a strong determining factor in how quickly an athlete returns to training and competition.
Individual programmes must be planned and implemented for each athlete. This would include sport-specific exercises, adaptation to new postures to correct muscle imbalance, taping and strapping and a home exercise programme.
The athlete must be progressed carefully from one phase to the next, and the criteria for progression are based on function, not time. Sport-specific functional testing is an essential part of moving from one phase of rehabilitation to the next, and finally, to full participation. Overtraining must be very carefully avoided in all of these phases, and training is monitored so that full activity does not occur before full recovery has taken place.
It is obvious that prevention is better than cure and the physiotherapist will always advise the patient on how to prevent recurrence of the injury on return to sport. Rose Macdonald
Here are 10 practical guidelines that will help an athlete avoid getting injured
A man's greatest strength is often his greatest weakness, and this is particularly noticeable among full- time sportsmen and women. The compulsive streak in their character which drives them to practise hour after hour, day after day, is their worst enemy when it comes to handling injuries. The only way around this is to put 'avoidance of injury' high on the list of priorities. When I am making out a training plan I always start with the objectives--such things as improving aerobic fitness, practising changes of pace or maintaining flexibility. Including 'avoidance of injury' in this list brings it into the reckoning when planning a week's training. These are my guidelines:
This seems obvious but it is seen all too often at the beginning of a season or in a training camp. Some people turn up very fit and set a fast pace in training-and the others suffer for it the next day. But instead of waiting for the stiffness to go, they try to go on training as hard as the day before. The result is that running is awkward, movements are not coordinated and injuries are more likely.
Ideally, one would never introduce anything new at all, but there is a first time for everything and there are bound to be changes of emphasis--the switch from indoor to outdoor training or from grass to a synthetic surface. The solution is to start switching well before it is necessary. In switching from cross-country running to the synthetic track, for example, one might include a bit of running on the track whenever the opportunity arises, even if it is only three or four laps and a few strides. The first track session of the year would only be half a normal session and it would be done mostly in trainers. The following week one might do most of one session on the track but only part of it in spikes, and for the next two weeks one increases the proportion done in spikes. After a month, we might be running three times a week on the track, with other sessions being done mostly on grass.
In the British climate this is particularly necessary. Warm muscles stretch much better than cold muscles. Ligaments and tendons are much more likely to tear when the muscles are cold and inflexible.
The warm-up procedure helps in several other ways, too, both physically in diverting the blood flow from non-essential areas to working muscles, and mentally, in focussing the athlete on the approaching event.
I would recommend at least 15 minutes and up to 30 minutes warm-up before hard training starts. In ball games this can often be done with a ball, carrying out various skill routines, but in all cases it should start with 5-10 minutes of gentle movement, gradually increasing in pace, followed by 5-10 minutes of stretching, still in warm clothing. After that, one moves to fast strides and eventually to short sprints, then stays warm and loose until the start. A sprinter might well take 45 minutes to warm up for a 10-second burst of energy. During the cool-down period, which should last for 10-15 minutes after a competition or a hard training session, the body temperature returns to normal and the fatigue products are flushed out of the muscles, which reduces the chances of stiffness the next day.
In cross-country and road running there may be unexpected traps for the unwary, potholes in the road, sudden ups or downs, all of which could cause trouble if you are not prepared for them, and of course this is closely linked to the next rule:
Wearing shoes which are too light or flimsy or which are unevenly worn are two very common causes of injury. If you turn up expecting a soft course and find that it is frozen hard, you could be in a lot of trouble. I once arrived for a so-called cross-country race in Madrid to find that it was 90-per-cent road. Luckily I had brought my road-racing shoes, but my England colleague, who had only spikes, had to run the race in dance shoes strapped on with pink ribbon ! (I won, but he came second.) At a higher level, Liz Mc Colgan threw away a chance of winning the World cross- country title in Boston because she had not checked out the length of spikes necessary on the snow-covered course.
Perhaps the commonest cause of all injuries is training too much on hard surfaces. Running fast on roads and tartan tracks causes a lot of impact shock. I recommend getting off the road at least one day in three.
This reduces the likelihood of stiffening up and your chances of catching a cold. Ideally, a hard session or a race should always be followed by a massage if you want to recover quickly.
This sounds a bit sissy, but it is not at all uncommon for athletes to stay wedged into a minibus or a train, sitting awkwardly for several hours before an important event. I recommend that you get up, walk around and stretch once every hour while travelling, if possible. Apart from the muscles, the more you can keep down the stress, the better you will perform. It is best to get to the venue the day before the event for anything big, and if you have to deal with major changes in climate and/or time zones it is best to get there a week beforehand.
After hard sessions, the immune system is definitely vulnerable. Athletes in hard training are particularly susceptible before a big event. They should stay away from crowded rooms, schools, and people with bad colds.
All too often people in training camps or in Games villages pick up stomach bugs just before the big event, and the reason is often evident from the sloppy conditions in which they live, with food left around, dirty clothing, people sharing cups and glasses. Athletes, like most young people, have a sense of invulnerability which is positively dangerous.
I have dealt with this before in earlier issues, but it cannot be too highly stressed. In hindsight it is usually possible to trace the cause of an illness or injury, and there is usually a point where the athletes SHOULD have eased off but didn't. It is a vital part of the coach' s job to tell the athlete when to stop and the athlete must play his/her part by being aware of the early signs of over-tiredness. A raised resting pulse is a sure sign.
However careful you are, injuries can occur, particularly in the stress of competition, and illness can be picked up, often when the athlete is really fit.
The first thing is damage limitation. The usual course of events is as follows:
The time to report the injury and start treatment is at Stage One. The procedure should be to switch right away from any exercise which makes the injury more painful and to get diagnosis immediately, certainly not later than the next day. At the same time, coach and athlete should work out what forms of exercise are possible, and redesign the programme so that the athlete is at least doing something to maintain cardiovascular fitness, constant body weight and muscle strength. An inactive injured athlete is a real 'sick gorilla'. It is as important to maintain his morale and confidence as it is to maintain his fitness, but in these days of leisure centres, gyms, static bikes and aquajoggers it is always possible to find some suitable exercise.
The key is rapid action when the injury first appears and a lot of psychological support to back up the remedial treatment. It is when things are not going well that the athlete really needs his coach. Oh, and good physiotherapy treatment.